Experimental Drug NVP-BEZ235 Slows Ovarian Cancer Growth in Mice; Solid Tumor Clinical Trials Ongoing

A study conducted recently at UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center found that experimental drug NVP-BEZ235, which blocks two points of a crucial cancer cell signaling pathway, inhibits the growth of ovarian cancer cells and significantly increases survival in an ovarian cancer mouse model.

A study conducted recently at  UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center (JCCC) found that an experimental drug, which blocks two points of a crucial cancer cell signaling pathway, inhibits the growth of ovarian cancer cells and significantly increases survival in an ovarian cancer mouse model.

Oliver Dorigo, M.D., Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Division Gynecologic Oncology, UCLA Jonnson Comprehensive Cancer Center; Member, JCCC Cancer Molecular Imaging Program Area

The Novartis Oncology drug, called NVP-BEZ235, also inhibits growth of ovarian cancer cells that have become resistant to the conventional treatment with platinum chemotherapy and helps to resensitize the cancer cells to the therapy. In addition, it enhances the effect of platinum chemotherapy on ovarian cancer cells that are still responding to the therapy, said the study’s senior author, Dr. Oliver Dorigo, an assistant professor of obstetrics and gynecology and a JCCC researcher.

“Platinum-based chemotherapy drugs are effective in treating ovarian cancers as long as the cancer cells remain sensitive to platinum,” Dorigo said. “But once the tumor becomes resistant, treating the cancer becomes very challenging. This is a significant clinical problem, since the majority of ovarian cancer patients develop resistance at some point during treatment. Breaking chemotherapy resistance is a difficult challenge, but crucial if we want to improve long-term survival for our patients.”

The study, performed on cells lines and mouse models, appears in the April 15 issue of the journal Clinical Cancer Research.

Over the last several years, Dorigo has been working in his laboratory to develop new therapies for ovarian cancer. About 22,000 American women are diagnosed each year with ovarian cancer, and more than 14,000 deaths are attributed to the disease annually. Dorigo has focused his research efforts on a pathway called PI3Kinase/Akt/mTOR, which, once activated, promotes ovarian cancer growth. The activated pathway also makes the cancer more aggressive and more likely to spread to other organs, Dorigo said, so targeting it offers great promise for more effective therapies for the disease.

In this two-year study, Dorigo and postdoctoral fellow Chintda Santiskulvong found that inhibiting two checkpoints of the pathway — PI3Kinase and mTOR — with NVP-BEZ235 decreased cancer growth, both in cell culture dishes and in mice with ovarian cancer. It also significantly increased survival in the mice, he said. More importantly, NVP-BEZ235 slowed growth of the ovarian cancer cells that had become resistant to platinum and helped to break that resistance.

“We were very encouraged to find that NPV-BEZ235 could resensitize the ovarian cancer cells to standard platinum treatment,” Dorigo said. “In addition, we found this drug to be more effective in inhibiting ovarian cancer cell growth than other drugs that target only one checkpoint, mTOR, in this pathway. We believe that NVP-BEZ235 has superior efficacy because of the dual effect on PI3Kinase and mTOR.”

The experimental drug is being tested as a single agent at the Jonsson Cancer Center in human clinical trials against other solid tumors. Researchers involved with those studies have said early results are encouraging.

John Glaspy, M.D., M.P.H., Co-Chief, Department of Medicine, Hematology/Oncology, UCLA Jonnson Comprehensive Cancer Center; JCCC Director, JCCC Clinical Research Unit; Member, Stand Up To Cancer Mangement Committee

“This is clearly a promising agent with activity in humans,” said Dr. John Glaspy, a professor of hematology–oncology and a Jonsson Cancer Center scientist involved with the studies. “We are still assessing its tolerability in patients.”

Dorigo said he hopes to initiate a clinical trial for women with ovarian cancer that tests the combination of NVP-BEZ235 with platinum chemotherapy, as he believes that the combination might be more effective than each drug alone.

The study was funded by the Ovarian Cancer Research Foundation/Liz Tilberis Scholarship, the Gynecologic Cancer Foundation/Florence and Marshall Schwid Ovarian Cancer Award, a STOP Cancer Career Development Award and the National Institutes of Health’s Women’s Reproductive Health Research Program.

About the UCLA Jonnson Comprehensive Cancer Center

UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center has more than 240 researchers and clinicians engaged in disease research, prevention, detection, control, treatment and education. One of the nation’s largest comprehensive cancer centers, the Jonsson Center is dedicated to promoting research and translating basic science into leading-edge clinical studies. In July 2010, the center was named among the top 10 cancer centers nationwide by U.S. News & World Report, a ranking it has held for 10 of the last 11 years.

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Clinical Trial Information:

The Cancer Biomarker Conundrum: Too Many False Discoveries

The boom in cancer [including ovarian] biomarker investments over the past 25 years has not translated into major clinical success. The reasons for biomarker failures include problems with study design and interpretation, as well as statistical deficiencies, according to an article published online August 12 in The Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

The boom in cancer [including ovarian] biomarker investments over the past 25 years has not translated into major clinical success. The reasons for biomarker failures include problems with study design and interpretation, as well as statistical deficiencies, according to an article published online August 12 in The Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

The National Institutes of Health defines a biomarker as “a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention.” In the past decade, there have been numerous biomarker discoveries, but most initially promising biomarkers have not been validated for clinical use.

Eleftherios P. Diamandis, M.D., Ph.D., Head, Section of Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

To understand why so-called biomarker “breakthroughs” have not made it to the clinic, Eleftherios P. Diamandis, M.D., Ph.D., professor of pathology and laboratory medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto and associate scientist at the Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital, reviewed some biomarkers initially hailed as breakthroughs and their subsequent failings.

Diamandis first describes the requirements for biomarkers to be approved for clinical use: A biomarker must be released into circulation in easily detectable amounts by a small asymptomatic tumor or its micro-environment; and it should preferably be specific for the tissue of origin. Also, if the biomarker is affected by a non-cancer disease, its utility for cancer detection may be compromised. For example, the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) biomarker, which is used to detect prostate cancer, is also elevated in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Diamandis looks at seven biomarkers that have emerged in the past 25 years, all of which were considered promising when they were first described. These include nuclear magnetic resonance of serum for cancer diagnosis; lysophosphatidic acid for ovarian cancer; four– and six-parameter diagnostic panels for ovarian cancer; osteopontin for ovarian cancer; early prostate cancer antigen-2 (EPCA-2) for prostate cancer detection; proteomic profiling of serum by mass spectrometry for ovarian cancer diagnosis; and peptidomic patterns for cancer diagnosis. Problems ranged from inappropriate statistical analysis to biases in case patient and control subject selection. For example, the problems with EPCA-2 included reporting values that were beyond the detection limit of the assay and using inappropriate reagents to test EPCA-2, such as solid surfaces coated with undiluted serum.

Diamandis concludes that “problems with pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical study design could lead to the generation of data that could be highly misleading.”

Sources:

The Cancer Biomarker Conundrum: Too Many False Discoveries, Journal of the National Cancer Institute Advance Access,  published on August 12, 2010, DOI 10.1093/jnci/djq335.

Eleftherios P. Diamandis. Cancer Biomarkers: Can We Turn Recent Failures into Success? Commentary, Journal of the National Cancer Institute Advance Access published on August 12, 2010, DOI 10.1093/jnci/djq306.

Researchers Identify “Missing Link” Underlying DNA Repair & Platinum Drug Resistance

Researchers have discovered an enzyme crucial to a type of DNA repair that also causes resistance to a class of cancer drugs most commonly used against ovarian cancer.

Scientists from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and the Life Sciences Institute of Zhejiang University in China report the discovery of the enzyme and its role in repairing DNA damage called “cross-linking” in the Science Express advance online publication of Science.

Junjie Chen, Ph.D., Professor and Chair, Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

“This pathway that repairs cross-linking damage is a common factor in a variety of cancers, including breast cancer and especially in ovarian cancer. If the pathway is active, it undoes the therapeutic effect of cisplatin and similar therapies,” said co-corresponding author Junjie Chen, Ph.D., professor and chair of MD Anderson’s Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology.

The platinum-based chemotherapies such as cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin work by causing DNA cross-linking in cancer cells, which blocks their ability to divide and leads to cell death. Cross-linking occurs when one of the two strands of DNA in a cell branches out and links to the other strand.

Cisplatin and similar drugs are often initially effective against ovarian cancer, Chen said, but over time the disease becomes resistant and progresses.

Scientists have known that the protein complex known as FANCIFANCD2 responds to DNA damage and repairs cross-linking, but the details of how the complex works have been unknown. “The breakthrough in this research is that we finally found an enzyme involved in the repair process,” Chen said.

The enzyme, which they named FAN1, appears to be a nuclease, which is capable of slicing through strands of DNA.

In a series of experiments, Chen and colleagues demonstrated how the protein complex summons FAN1, connects with the enzyme and moves it to the site of DNA cross-linking. They also showed that FAN1 cleaves branched DNA but leaves the normal, separate double-stranded DNA alone. Mutant versions of FAN1 were unable to slice branched DNA.

Like a lock and key

The researchers also demonstrated that FAN1 cannot get at DNA damage without being taken there by the FANCI-FANCD2 protein complex, which detects and moves to the damaged site. The complex recruits the FAN1 enzyme by acquiring a single ubiquitin molecule. FAN1 connects with the complex by binding to the ubiquitin site.

“It’s like a lock and key system, once they fit, FAN1 is recruited,” Chen said.

Analyzing the activity of this repair pathway could guide treatment for cancer patients, Chen said, with the platinum-based therapies used when the cross-linking repair mechanism is less active.

Scientists had shown previously that DNA repair was much less efficient when FANCI and FANCD2 lack the single ubiquitin. DNA response and damage-repair proteins can be recruited to damage sites by the proteins’ ubiquitin-binding domains. The team first identified a protein that had both a ubiquitin-binding domain and a known nuclease domain. When they treated cells with mitomycin C, which promotes DNA cross-linking, that protein, then known as KIAA1018, gathered at damage sites. This led them to the functional experiments that established its role in DNA repair.

They renamed the protein FAN1, short for Fanconi anemia-associated nuclease 1. The FANCI-FANCD2 complex is ubiquitinated by an Fanconi anemia (FA) core complex containing eight FA proteins. These genes and proteins were discovered during research of FA, a rare disease caused by mutations in 13 fanc genes that is characterized by congenital malformations, bone marrow failure, cancer and hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents.

Chen said the FANCI-FANCD2 pathway also is associated with the BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathways, which are involved in homologous recombination repair. Scientists know that homologous recombination repair is also required for the repair of DNA cross-links, but the exact details remain to be resolved, Chen said. Mutations to BRCA1 and BRCA2 are known to raise a woman’s risk for ovarian and breast cancers and are found in about 5-10 percent of women with either disease.

Co-authors with Chen are co-first author Gargi Ghosal, Ph.D., and Jingsong Yuan, Ph.D., also of Experimental Radiation Oncology at MD Anderson; and co-corresponding author Jun Huang, Ph.D., co-first author Ting Liu, Ph.D., of the Life Sciences Institute of Zhejiang University in Hangzhou, China.

This research was funded by a grant from the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Startup Fund at Zhejiang University.

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Expression of Proteins Linked to Poor Outcome in Women with Ovarian Cancer

Scientists have established the presence of certain proteins in ovarian cancer tissues and have linked these proteins to poor survival rates in women with advanced stages of the disease.

Christina M. Annunziata, M.D., Ph.D., Assistant Clinical Investigator, Medical Oncology Branch & Affiliates, Molecular Signaling Section, National Cancer Institute

NF-kB Signaling Pathway

Scientists have established the presence of certain proteins in ovarian cancer tissues and have linked these proteins to poor survival rates in women with advanced stages of the disease. The study, led by scientists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, appears in Cancer online, April 19, 2010.

The proteins in question belong to the nuclear factor kappa Beta (NF-kB) family. NF-kB controls many processes within the cell including cell survival and proliferation, inflammation, immune responses, and cellular responses to stress.

“This study sheds light on the distinctive genetic features of the NF-kB pathway and may provide targets for the development of novel therapies for ovarian cancer,” said lead investigator, Christina M. Annunziata, M.D., Ph.D., associate clinical investigator, Medical Oncology Branch.

Abnormalities in NF-kB signaling have been found in several types of cancer, including ovarian cancer, but the mechanism and importance of such alterations in ovarian cancer was not defined. To address these knowledge gaps, the research team investigated the expression of NF-kB-related proteins in the cells of tumor tissue obtained at surgery from 33 previously untreated women who were newly diagnosed with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. The patients had similar stage (all late stage), grade, and type of disease. All patients were treated with a three-drug regimen of standard chemotherapy agents in an NCI clinical trial that was conducted at the NIH Clinical Research Center.

To assess NF-kB family members and associated proteins in ovarian tumor cells, the scientists used immunohistochemistry, a method that uses antibodies — a type of protein that the body’s immune system produces when it detects harmful substances — to identify specific molecules in tissue specimens. Subsequently, they looked for associations between the percentage of tumor cells in individual proteins and patient outcomes.

“This study sheds light on the distinctive genetic features of the NF-kB pathway and may provide targets for the development of novel therapies for ovarian cancer,” said lead investigator, Christina M. Annunziata, M.D., Ph.D.

The data revealed that the presence of one NF-kB family member—p50—in more than one-quarter of the cells was associated with poor survival. Low-frequency or nonexpression of a target gene, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), was also associated with poor prognosis. Further, the team identified two NF-kB family members—p65 and RelB—and a protein called IKKa that plays a role in promoting inflammation, that were frequently expressed in the same cells, providing more evidence that NF-kB is active in some ovarian cancers. It is possible that the NF-kB activity in these cancers could increase their growth and/or resistance to treatment.

“This work continues to define and characterize the biological relevance of NF-kB activity in ovarian cancer by translating research findings with ovarian cancer cells in the laboratory to ovarian cancer in women at the time of initial diagnosis,” said Annunziata.

About the National Cancer Institute

NCI leads the National Cancer Program and the NIH effort to dramatically reduce the burden of cancer and improve the lives of cancer patients and their families, through research into prevention and cancer biology, the development of new interventions, and the training and mentoring of new researchers. For more information about cancer, please visit the NCI Web site at http://www.cancer.gov or call NCI’s Cancer Information Service at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237).

About the National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) — The Nation’s Medical Research Agency — includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is the primary federal agency for conducting and supporting basic, clinical and translational medical research, and it investigates the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov.

Comment

If NF-kB activity is ultimately determined by Dr. Annunciata et. al. to be biologically significant to ovarian cancer cell growth and/or treatment resistance, there are NF-kB inhibitor drugs (e.g., bortezomib (Velcade) or denosumab (Prolia)) in existence that theoretically could be tested in ovarian cancer clinical trials. In addition genistein, a soy isoflavone, and BAY11-7082, a preclinical compound, could be tested through preclinical/clinical testing as potential NF-kB inhibitors.  See Miller SC et. al. study below for a complete list of known NF-kB pathway inhibiting drugs and compounds.

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Genentech Announces Positive Results of Avastin Phase III Study in Women with Advanced Ovarian Cancer

Genentech announces positive results of Avastin Phase III study (GOG 218) in women with advanced ovarian cancer. The study showed that women who continued maintenance use of Avastin alone, after receiving Avastin in combination with chemotherapy, lived longer without the disease worsening compared to those who received chemotherapy alone. This is the first Phase III study of an anti-angiogenic therapy in advanced ovarian cancer to meet its primary endpoint.

Tumor angiogenesis is the proliferation of a network of blood vessels that penetrates into cancerous growths, supplying nutrients and oxygen and removing waste products. Tumor angiogenesis actually starts with cancerous tumor cells releasing molecules that send signals to surrounding normal host tissue. This signaling activates certain genes in the host tissue that, in turn, make proteins to encourage growth of new blood vessels. Photo credit: NCI

Genentech, Inc., a wholly owned member of the Roche Group , today announced that a Phase III study showed the combination of Avastin® (bevacizumab) and chemotherapy followed by maintenance use of Avastin alone increased the time women with previously untreated advanced ovarian cancer lived without the disease worsening (progression-free survival or PFS), compared to chemotherapy alone. A preliminary assessment of safety noted adverse events previously observed in pivotal trials of Avastin. Data from the study will be submitted for presentation at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting, June 4 – 8, 2010.

In the three-arm study, known as Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 0218, women with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer who already had surgery to remove as much of the tumor as possible were randomized to receive one of the following:

  • Arm 1: Placebo in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy followed by placebo alone, for a total of up to 15 months of therapy
  • Arm 2: Avastin in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy followed by placebo alone, for a total of up to 15 months of therapy
  • Arm 3: Avastin in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy followed by the maintenance use of Avastin alone, for a total of up to 15 months of therapy.

The study showed that women who continued maintenance use of Avastin alone, after receiving Avastin in combination with chemotherapy (Arm 3), lived longer without the disease worsening compared to those who received chemotherapy alone. Women who received Avastin in combination with chemotherapy, but did not continue maintenance use of Avastin alone (Arm 2), did not live longer without the disease worsening compared to chemotherapy alone.

“Additional medicines are urgently needed for women with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer, as most women’s cancer will worsen after their initial treatment,” said Hal Barron, M.D., F.A.C.C., Executive Vice President, Global Development and Chief Medical Officer. “We are encouraged by the positive findings of this study, which highlight the importance of continuing maintenance Avastin after combining Avastin with chemotherapy in this setting. We will discuss these results with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.”

Robert Allen Burger, MD, FACOG, FACS, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

“This is good news for women with ovarian, primary peritoneal or fallopian tube cancers,” said GOG 0218 study chair Robert Burger, M.D., Fox-Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia. “This study showed that after initial surgery, the combination of Avastin and chemotherapy followed by extended treatment with Avastin improves progression-free survival in women with newly diagnosed advanced tumors.”

The trial is sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between the NCI and Genentech, and is being conducted by a network of researchers led by the GOG.

Avastin is being studied worldwide in more than 450 clinical trials for multiple types of cancer, including approximately 25 ongoing clinical trials in the United States for women with various stages of ovarian cancer.

About Ovarian Cancer

According to the American Cancer Society, ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death among American women. In 2009 an estimated 21,500 women were diagnosed with ovarian cancer and approximately 14,500 died from the disease in the U.S. The disease causes more deaths than any other gynecologic cancer, and the American Cancer Society estimates that nearly 70 percent of women with advanced disease will die from it within five years.

Ovarian cancer is associated with high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a protein associated with tumor growth and spread. Studies have shown a correlation between a high level of VEGF and a poorer prognosis in women with ovarian cancer. Currently, treatment options for women with this disease are limited to surgery and chemotherapy.

About the GOG 0218 Study

GOG 0218 is an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III study in 1,873 women with previously untreated advanced epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal or fallopian tube carcinoma. The study evaluates Avastin (5 cycles) in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy (6 cycles) compared to carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy alone (6 cycles). The trial is also designed to assess the maintenance use of Avastin alone following the initial combined regimen of Avastin and chemotherapy (for a total of up to 15 months of therapy), compared to carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy alone (6 cycles).

The primary endpoint of the study is PFS as assessed by trial investigators. Secondary and exploratory endpoints of the study include overall survival, PFS by independent review, objective response rate, safety, quality of life measures and analysis of patient tumor and blood samples.

Detailed safety assessments are ongoing. A preliminary assessment of safety performed by the GOG identified Avastin-related serious adverse events noted in previous pivotal studies, including fatal neutropenic infection and gastrointestinal perforation. The full study results, including safety information, will be presented at a future medical meeting.

About Avastin

Avastin is a solution for intravenous infusion and is a biologic antibody designed to specifically bind to a protein called VEGF. VEGF plays an important role throughout the lifecycle of the tumor to develop and maintain blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. Avastin interferes with the tumor blood supply by directly binding to the VEGF protein to prevent interactions with receptors on blood vessel cells. Avastin does not bind to receptors on normal or cancer cells. The tumor blood supply is thought to be critical to a tumor’s ability to grow and spread in the body (metastasize). For more information about angiogenesis, visit http://www.gene.com.

Boxed WARNINGS and Additional Important Safety Information

People treated with Avastin may experience side effects. In clinical trials, some people treated with Avastin experienced serious and sometimes fatal side effects, including:

Gastrointestinal (GI) perforation: Treatment with Avastin can result in the development of a potentially serious side effect called GI perforation, which is the development of a hole in the stomach, small intestine or large intestine. In clinical trials, this side effect occurred in more people who received Avastin than in the comparison group (0.3 percent to 2.4 percent). In some cases, GI perforation resulted in fatality.

Surgery and wound healing problems: Treatment with Avastin can lead to slow or incomplete wound healing (for example, when a surgical incision has trouble healing or staying closed). In some cases, this event resulted in fatality. Surgery and wound healing problems occurred more often in people who received Avastin than in the comparison group. Avastin therapy should not be started for at least 28 days after surgery and until the surgical wound is fully healed. The length of time between stopping Avastin and having voluntary surgery without the risk of having surgery and wound healing problems following surgery has not been determined.

Severe bleeding: Treatment with Avastin can result in serious bleeding, including coughing up blood, bleeding in the stomach, vomiting of blood, bleeding in the brain, nosebleeds and vaginal bleeding. These events occurred up to five times more often in people who received Avastin. Across cancer types, 1.2 percent to 4.6 percent of people who received Avastin experienced severe to fatal bleeding. People who have recently coughed up blood (greater than or equal to a half teaspoon of red blood) or have serious bleeding should not receive Avastin.

In clinical trials for different cancer types, there were additional serious and sometimes fatal side effects that occurred in more people who received Avastin than in those in the comparison group. The formation of an abnormal passage from parts of the body to another part (non-GI fistula formation) was seen in 0.3 percent or less of people. Severe to life-threatening stroke or heart problems were seen in 2.4 percent of people. Too much protein in the urine, which led to kidney problems, was seen in less than 1 percent of people. Additional serious side effects that occurred in more people who received Avastin than those in the comparison group included severe to life-threatening high blood pressure, which was seen in 5 percent to 18 percent of people, and nervous system and vision disturbances (reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome), which was seen in less than 0.1 percent of people. Infusion reactions with the first dose of Avastin were uncommon and occurred in less than 3 percent of people and severe reactions occurred in 0.2 percent of people.

Common side effects that occurred in more than 10 percent of people who received Avastin for different cancer types, and at least twice the rate of the comparison group, were nosebleeds, headache, high blood pressure, inflammation of the nose, too much protein in the urine, taste change, dry skin, rectal bleeding, tear production disorder, back pain and inflammation of the skin (exfoliative dermatitis). Across all trials, treatment with Avastin was permanently stopped in 8.4 percent to 21 percent of people because of side effects.

Avastin may impair fertility. Patients who are pregnant or thinking of becoming pregnant should talk with their doctor about the potential risk of loss of the pregnancy or the potential risk of Avastin to the fetus during and following Avastin therapy, and the need to continue an effective birth control method for at least six months following the last dose of Avastin.

For full Prescribing Information and Boxed WARNINGS on Avastin please visit http://www.avastin.com.

About Genentech

Founded more than 30 years ago, Genentech is a leading biotechnology company that discovers, develops, manufactures and commercializes medicines to treat patients with serious or life-threatening medical conditions. The company, a wholly owned member of the Roche Group, has headquarters in South San Francisco, California. For additional information about the company, please visit http://www.gene.com.

About The Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG)

The Gynecologic Oncology Group is a non-profit organization of more than 300 member institutions with the purpose of promoting excellence in the quality and integrity of clinical and basic scientific research in the field of Gynecologic malignancies. The Group is committed to maintaining the highest standards in the clinical trial development, execution, analysis and distribution of results. Continuous evaluation of our processes is utilized in order to constantly improve the quality of patient care.

GOG receives support from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) of the National Institutes for Health (NIH).

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Nationwide Registry to “Match” Study Volunteers With Researchers

Individuals who want to participate in research studies can connect online with researchers nationwide through the first disease-neutral, volunteer recruitment registry.  ResearchMatch.org is a not-for-profit secure Web site, designed to provide people who are interested in participating in research the opportunity to be matched with studies that may be the right fit for them.

NIH Announces First National Research Study Recruitment Registry

Nationwide Registry to “Match” Volunteers with Researchers

Barbara Alving, M.D.

Barbara Alving, M.D., Director, National Center For Research Resources. "ResearchMatch is a tool that can improve the connection and communication between potential participants and researchers providing opportunities for the public to contribute to advancing new treatments."

researchmatch.orgIndividuals who want to participate in research studies now can connect online with researchers nationwide through the first disease-neutral, volunteer recruitment registry.

ResearchMatch.org is a not-for-profit secure Web site, designed to provide people who are interested in participating in research the opportunity to be matched with studies that may be the right fit for them.

ResearchMatch offers an easy-to-use, free and safe way for volunteers to connect with thousands of researchers who are conducting research on a wide range of diseases.

The site is a collaborative effort of the national network of medical research institutions affiliated with the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs). The CTSA program, which is led by the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), a part of the National Institutes of Health, is focused on enhancing local and national efforts to enhance the translation of laboratory discoveries into treatments for patients.

“‘Participant recruitment continues to be a significant barrier to the completion of research studies nationwide — recent NIH data indicates that just 4 percent of the U.S. population has participated in clinical trials,’ said NCRR Director Barbara Alving, M.D.”

“Participant recruitment continues to be a significant barrier to the completion of research studies nationwide — recent NIH data indicates that just 4 percent of the U.S. population has participated in clinical trials,” said NCRR Director Barbara Alving, M.D. “ResearchMatch is a tool that can improve the connection and communication between potential participants and researchers providing opportunities for the public to contribute to advancing new treatments.”

” …One key difference is that ResearchMatch places the burden of connecting the right volunteers with the right study on the researchers, whereas Clinicaltrials.gov asks volunteers to identify the trials that could work for them. …”

The convenient and user-friendly registry employs a familiar research matching model that is complementary to Clinicaltrials.gov. One key difference is that ResearchMatch places the burden of connecting the right volunteers with the right study on the researchers, whereas Clinicaltrials.gov asks volunteers to identify the trials that could work for them.

“NIH data indicates that 85 percent of trials don’t finish on time due to low patient participation, and 30 percent of trial sites fail to enroll even a single patient. We aim to help combat these challenges with ResearchMatch.” — Gordeon Bernard, M.D., principal investigator of the Vanderbilt University CTSA

“ResearchMatch offers a convenient solution to the complex, competitive and often costly participant recruitment system,” said Gordon Bernard, M.D., principal investigator of the Vanderbilt CTSA, which hosts the national registry. “NIH data indicates that 85 percent of trials don’t finish on time due to low patient participation, and 30 percent of trial sites fail to enroll even a single patient. We aim to help combat these challenges with ResearchMatch.”

How ResearchMatch Works

ResearchMatch will match any interested individual residing in the United States with researchers who are approved to recruit potential research volunteers through the system. After an individual has self-registered to become a volunteer, researchMatch’s security features ensure that personal information is protected until volunteers authorize the release of their contact information to a specific study that may be of interest to them. Volunteers are notified electronically when they are a possible match and then make the decision regarding the release of their contact information. It also will promote choice as there are no obligations on the volunteer to participate in studies.

For the first year of the project, only researchers affiliated with participating CTSA institutions are eligible to use researchMatch. However, plans are in place to make researchMatch available beyond the CTSA consortium by 2011. Currently 52 individual institutions associated with 40 CTSA sites are part of the ResearchMatch network. A list of these institutions may be viewed here (http://ncrr.nih.gov/clinical_research_resources/clinical_and_translational_science_awards/researchmatch).

To learn more about researchMatch and to register as a volunteer, visit: www.researchmatch.org.

About the CTSA Consortium

The CTSA consortium is a national network of 46 medical research institutions working together to improve the way biomedical research is conducted across the country. The consortium, funded through Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs), shares a common vision to reduce the time it takes for laboratory discoveries to become treatments for patients and to engage communities in clinical research efforts. It also is fulfilling the critical need to train a new generation of clinical researchers. The CTSA program is led by the National Center for Research Resources, part of National Institutes of Health.

Launched in 2006, this network now includes awardees in 26 states. When the program is fully implemented, it will support approximately 60 CTSAs across the nation.

For more information about the CTSA program, visit www.ncrr.nih.gov/ctsa. The CTSA consortium Web site, which provides information on the consortium, current members and new grantees, can be accessed at www.CTSAweb.org.

About the National Center For Research Resources

The National Center for Research Resources, part of NIH, provides laboratory scientists and clinical researchers with the resources and training they need to understand, detect, treat and prevent a wide range of diseases. NCRR supports all aspects of translational and clinical research, connecting researchers, patients and communities across the nation. For more information, visit www.ncrr.nih.gov.

About the National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) — The Nation’s Medical Research Agency — includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is the primary federal agency for conducting and supporting basic, clinical and translational medical research, and it investigates the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov.

SourceNIH Announces First National Research Study Recruitment Registry – Nationwide Registry to “Match” Volunteers with Researchers, NIH News, U.S. National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, November 10, 2009.

UA Research Team Designing Holographic Imaging System For Ovarian Cancer

University of Arizona researchers Jennifer Barton and Ray Kostuk have received a five-year, $2.4 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to build the instrument that they hope will one day be used to monitor women at high risk for ovarian cancer.

Hologram of Human Ovary

Human ovary image captured with the use of the prototype holographic imaging system the team developed. (Photo: Univ. of Arizona News)

Hologram of An Orange

For comparison, an onion is imaged with the use of the prototype system the team developed. (Photo: Univ. of Arizona News)

Two University of Arizona [UA] researchers have formed a research team to design, build and evaluate two versions of an ovarian cancer medical imaging and screening instrument that will use holographic components in a new type of optical microscope.

Raymond Kostuk and Jennifer Barton have secured a five-year, $2.4 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to build the instrument that they hope will one day be used to monitor women at high risk for ovarian cancer. Kostuk is the Kenneth Von Behren Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering and professor of optical sciences. Barton heads the UA department of biomedical engineering and is assistant director of the BIO5 Institute.

The system is unique in that it will for the first time project multiple spatial images from different depths within a tissue sample and simultaneously provide spectral information from optical markers in order to better identify cancerous cells.

This combined spectral spatial imaging technique shows potential to be much more effective in identifying cancerous tissue sites than by separately using spatial or spectral information.

The grant was issued following the successful two-year development of a prototype system the team built. It tests the validity of using holographic technology for subsurface imaging without having to perform surgery and take tissue samples.

According to the National Institutes of Health, there is, to date, no single effective screening test for ovarian cancer, so ovarian cancer is rarely diagnosed in its early stages. The result is that in more than 50 percent of women with ovarian cancer are diagnosed in the late stages of the disease when the cancer has already advanced.

  • About 76 percent percent of women with ovarian cancer survive one year after diagnosis.
  • About 45 percent live longer than 5 years after diagnosis.

Barton said ovarian cancer provides a compelling case to test holographic imaging and its efficacy in detecting cancers. At the present time the preferred treatment is surgery, which is also often needed to diagnose ovarian cancer. The procedure includes taking tissue samples, which may threaten the woman’s ability to have children in the future.

Jennifer Barton, UA

Jennifer Barton, Professor & Chair, Department of Biomedical Engineering; Assistant Director, BIO5 Institute. (Photo: Univ of Arizona News)

“Ovarian cancer has no symptoms until it is highly advanced making the five-year prognosis extremely poor. Those at high risk – with a family history of ovarian cancer or those who carry genetic mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, which normally help protect against both breast and ovarian cancer – may be counseled to have their ovaries removed through laparoscopic surgery,” Barton said. “Now imagine if you are an 18-year-old woman who has this history – ovaries are an important part of your overall health. They produce hormones you need over and above the notion that you would need your ovaries should you want to have children in the future.”

Thus, new technology capable of reliably diagnosing ovarian cancer in earlier stages could reduce the morbidity, high mortality and economic impact of this disease.

The system will work like a high-powered microscope that can be used to study tissue samples already removed. In addition, an endoscopic version is in the design stage to safely scan the ovaries for cancer during laparoscopic screenings in high-risk women, or as an adjunct to other laparoscopic procedures in all women.

The team will work with Dr. Kenneth D. Hatch, president of the Society of Pelvic Surgeons, and a professor of obstetrics and gynecology and director of female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery at the UA College of Medicine.

Through Hatch and a partnership with his patients who consent, Barton and Kostuk will be able to identify abnormal spatial and spectral markers of cancerous ovarian tissue.

Ray Kostuk

Ray Kostuk, Kenneth Von Behren Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering & Professor of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona (Photo: Univ. of Arizona News)

The new imaging system will be tested on high-risk patients who are willing to participate and provide some future benefit to other patients who find themselves in a similar situation, Barton said.

Kostuk and Barton’s aim is to design the imaging system so that it is easy to use, requiring very little training, and also be cost effective.

“The system will image like an MRI or a CT scan but with much higher resolution than an ultrasonic image and will be a lot less expensive than an MRI. As an additional benefit no radiation will be used or exposed to sensitive ovary areas during the cancer screenings,” Kostuk said.

During the past 25 years Kostuk has researched different aspects of holography and holographic materials for use as optical elements.

The holographic imaging system being designed combines an optical technique that creates images capable of detecting subtle tissue microstructure changes. Together with fluorescence spectroscopy methods, the system has demonstrated capability for early cancer detection.

Another member of the team, UA research professor Marek Romanowski, with the UA department of biomedical engineering and the BIO5 Institute, is working on the development of targeted fluorescent dyes that will be used on tissue samples to identify or confirm suspected cancerous areas shown in the spatial image.

The multidisciplinary approach to the design of the hologram-based imaging system is a testament to the complexity of treating cancers.

“One of the advantages of being part of the UA is the ability to interact collaboratively with people in other disciplines,” Kotuk said. “Jennifer is a wonderful colleague who can identify important medical applications for new techniques and is able to bridge the gap between traditional engineering and medicine. Her skill and knowledge is critical to the success of the program,” he said.

“To solve the really interesting problems of today, no one person has all the expertise needed,” Barton added.

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